Lesson 2 - Managing Distruptive Change


Understanding The Forces Of Disruptive Change

Managing Digital Disruption- Online Course & Textbook

The forces of disruptive change are redefining conventional assumptions, bringing new problems to solve for Business and industry, Healthcare, Higher Education, Investors, Government Agencies, and Individuals. Creating new disruptive business models, new customer/patient/employee value propositions.

Digital transformation is a categorical imperative for long-term success and survival. The constant stream of new technologies is blurring industry boundaries and redefining markets, overrunning the ability of organizations to keep up. Technology will continue to get smaller, smarter, faster, more networked, and integrated into everything.

As the demographics, customer requirements, tastes, and behaviors continue to change, so must the value propositions organizations offer. Some business models have become victims of digital disruption.

Facing disruptive change and new innovative business models, organizations, and entire industries are at risk of digital disruption.

Digital transformation demands leaderships attention, understanding, and action.

It Cannot Be Delegated; It Must Be Led

It may be an uncomfortable subject for many executives but an unavoidable obligation. With an investment of time and some coaching, the terminology, concepts, and principles are understandable.


Lesson 3


The Status Quo Is an Illusion - Not Sustainable

 Today’s environment has more disruptive change than at any time in history.  Organizations fail when the leadership’s focus is on the status quo, the current operational effectiveness and efficiencies, the shareholders’ reaction to quarterly earnings, and the traditional top-down strategic planning, control, and decision-making processes. 


Technology will continue to get smaller, faster, more intelligent, networked, and integrated into everything. As the demographics and the customer requirements, tastes, and behaviors continue to change, so must the products and services that businesses offer. 

Research shows that consumer behavior is changing. Many are moving to online retail, not getting married, not having as many children, downsizing their living space, cutting back on purchases, aggressively seeking deals, and preferring fresh and healthier food choices.

For example, for the millennial generation, seventy-three million strong, their primary source of news and information is the internet. They are highly educated and technologically connected and expect businesses to adjust to their needs. They communicate much differently than the earlier generations. The millennials will change the world more than any other generation.

Some businesses have become victims of disruptive change, while the fortunes of others have waxed and waned. Growth markets come and go. Everything has a shelf life.

In today’s uncertain business environment, both the threats and the opportunities are accelerating. Albert Einstein said, “Our world is a product of our thinking; it cannot be changed without changing our thinking.”

However, humans have been remarkably adaptive to change. We have learned to survive and prosper no matter what life, the environment, or technology throws at us. In our paradoxical world, organizations resist change with a powerful bias for the status quo. Many of us prefer consistency, keeping everything the same, a preference for the current and sticking with decisions made previously. The status quo is frequently used as a reference point for decision-making.

Behavioral science research has found that when faced with complicated issues, we have a mental shortcut that allows us to decide quickly and efficiently, where our current emotions of fear, pleasure, and surprise influence our decisions. In other words, emotions play a leading role when we face multifaceted judgments.

Our emotions rate more involved decisions on a bipolar scale that is good or bad, suggesting that we base many of our judgments not only on what we think about the decision but how we feel about it.

Understanding the heuristic effect, the mental shortcut that allows people to make judgments when dealing with complex problems is central to creating an adaptive organization.

The executive leadership must thoughtfully frame the communications based on how people think and instinctively decide. Clearly articulating the reality of the situation and the choices that influenced the organization's decisions. Employees need to hear an exciting vision of growth and opportunity—a unique, genuine, compelling, and believable story. A story about innovative products and services created by cross-functional project teams. A strategic vision where employees can learn, develop, contribute and bring value to the organization.

Disruptive change from developments in technology and changing demographics will create new challenges and new opportunities at every turn. The impact of disruptive change will require an organization to think differently and rethink everything. 


Strategic Decision-making is About Choices

Lesson 4 Adaptive Leadership

 Adaptive leadership is a style where the CEO encourages sharing, the expression of ideas, and an active participatory role in decision-making. The management team should have unfettered discussions, ask questions, listen, have open dialogues and vigorous debates, challenge assumptions, and think long-term. 

The team should avoid underestimating the threats or missed opportunities by narrowly framing the discussions. They should rethink the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, and competitive positions. They should be innovative and consider a wide variety of options, then apply their collective wisdom to the risks and opportunities of the choices. 

The CEO should consider introducing diverse ways of thinking and different reference points about the choices by adding a chief talent officer, a chief customer officer, and a chief artificial intelligence officer to the leadership team.

With collective wisdom decision-making, the leadership team’s combined cognitive differences can create unique permutations and produce new innovative solutions. However, the most important advantage is the management team’s shared understanding and a shared commitment to implement the decisions. 

How you communicate both the problems of disruptive change and your solutions to the organization matters. The words that you use matter. Framing the decision as an opportunity will create more divergent thinking, more openness to the choices, more creativity, and more adaptive responses.

Today, talent management and employee engagement are essential activities. Introducing a newsletter about “The Adaptive Journey” can help employees better understand the decision-making process, the options considered, the choices, and the future opportunities they offer. A new strategic vision statement will then guide the enterprise’sfuture technologies, innovations, team-based structures, and talent managementprograms.

Disruptive change is forcing organizations to rethink longstanding business concepts. Historically, strategic planning was a senior management function that involved the identification of corporate goals and objectives. The planning process defined the business model and organizational structures, formulated strategies and actions, and was the basis for resource allocation and budgeting.

In the past, the strategic planning assumptions were based on the management’s experience, knowledge, and judgment along with the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, and the competitive position in the marketplace. In today’s environment of disruptive change, an assumption based on multiyear strategic planning is no longer a useful tool to direct and guide the organization’s growth and long-term survival. In fact, strategic planning is dead; organizations cannot plan for an unknowable future.

Framed by a complex mixture of new, innovative technologies, changing demographics, and increasing consumer options, the question is how to design a new business model, one that can adapt to disruptive change. Moreover, one that meets the changing demands of today’s customers and workforces. With a goal of adaptability and guided by the shared strategic vision, the new business model should organize as a team-based business structure designed for speed, agility, and innovation.

The old bureaucratic hierarchically structures that were designed to ensure predictability, conformity, and budget control are being replaced by a horizontal network of business units, functional workgroups, and cross-functional project teams collaborating through culture.

When freed from top-down, command and control decision-making, empowered employee teams can offer new forms of innovative thinking, problem-solving, products, services, and customer engagement strategies.

This hybrid flat and team-based structure can offer many significant advantages: both a horizontal and a vertical organizational structure; both functional and project-based; fewer traditional managers; more project managers; fluid boundaries and collaboration.

Cross-functional planning teams work together to experiment, prototype, and discover new innovative customer solutions.



Lesson 5 Shared Strategic Vision

A Great Place to Work

Creating an Adaptive Corporate Culture

The CEO and the management team are responsible for the analysis of problematic situations that could challenge the organization’s long-term growth and survival.

Disruptive change requires rethinking the organizational emphasis on the short-term competitive advantage, market share, and quarterly earnings. It is ideal to focus instead on long-term sustainability by fully embracing strategies of adaptability, technology, and talent management. 

The CEO and the leadership team should create a strategic vision of core beliefs and shared values that describe the corporate culture and guide the enterprise’s future decisions. 

The process should begin by asking and answering a series of questions: 

· What are we good at? 

· What do we want to become? 

· What do we believe in? 

· What do we intend to achieve? 

· What talents do we need?

· Why work for us?

As an internal communications document, the strategic vision statement gives the organization a perspective on the path forward and offers a sense of purpose beyond profit maximization. 

As part of an employer-branding campaign, the strategic vision statement describes how the organization’s culture is different from other competitive employers and why prospective candidates would want to work there. A shared strategic vision with high standards of excellence and a theme of creativity, innovation, learning, and opportunity would engage and inspire both current employees and future candidates. 

The new vision statement should describe the organization’s strategic goals, such as becoming an adaptive enterprise by winning the talent war.

· We are building the means to adapt to an ever-changing world. 

· We are transparent and share information openly.

· We tolerate ambiguity.

· We are not afraid to change. 

· We are willing to test new ideas. 

· We embrace and celebrate the diversity of minds.

· We actively support our community. 

· We look for, hire, and help develop talented people.

· We build leaders from within.

· We thoroughlydebate strategy and trust others to execute the tactics.

· We are committed to continual improvement.

· Together, our business partners and talented employee teams collaborate, solve problems, and satisfy customer requirements. 

· We will win by exploring avenues of learning, innovation, flexibility, technology, and talent. 

An optimistic and positive strategic vision will set a new and exciting organizational direction. It will take away much of the ambivalence and uncertainty that is associatedwith today’s environment. It will differentiate the organization by creating the ability to adjust to constantly changing circumstances and conditions. It will build an architectural symmetry of leadership, vision, technology, and talent in a culture that is prepared for whatever the future brings 


Lesson 6



Diversity of Minds over Ability

Business is increasingly becoming an environment where teams work collaboratively. Teams with diverse perspectives, personality traits, talents, backgrounds, and interests are better at innovation, creativity, problem-solving, and decision-making than capable individuals alone or teams with a cognitive bias. 

With greater diversity will come collective wisdom, task-relevant information, and an array of borrowed perceptions.

Teams do the following:

· view the problem from different angles

· perceive adjacent possibilities

· offer ideas in the neighborhood

· introduce information, knowledge, and wisdom

· propose fresh new solutions 

By thinking differently, the whole becomes more significant than the sum of its parts, and outcomes are enhanced. 

Assembling Unconventional Teams

Building a project team is about both diversity and ability. Actively seek generalists and specialists as well as people with different experiences, educational and functional backgrounds, cognitive depth, age, and personality traits.

Without a diversity of minds and backgrounds, the project team can become lopsided with cognitive bias. It will be less creative and have fewer innovative ideas. 

Assembling an effective project team is not about assigning human resources; it is about the autonomy of thought.

Until recently, strategic planning activities drove strategic business objectives, and in turn directed functional department action plans. These first principles of management, along with the associated skills and abilities, are changing.

Today, organizations have flatter structures and are more team based. Functional departments have started to become less well defined. Team dynamics tend to become multi-directional rather than hierarchical.

The growth of cross-functional teams has influenced both decision-making processes and organizational structures. 

Cross-Functional Teams 

With technology, talent, and innovation, cross-functional teams will create tomorrow’s competitive advantage. 

Cross-functional teams represent all levels of an organization from different functional areas, including IT and often including business partners, suppliers, consultants, and customers—all working together toward a common goal. 

Cross-functional team leadership can be challenging. Project managers are responsible for overseeing team members with various ideas, opinions, and perspectives and then transforming those different variations of thought into a cohesive proposal. 


Projects are unique, temporary, team-based endeavors with a series of initiatives designed to achieve

a specific outcome. Projects may involve a single functional business unit, a cross-functional team, or joint venture with a business partner. They are frequently disbanded when the project is complete. 

Developing a software application, creating a new product or service, affecting an organizational change, constructing a new building, prototyping a new idea, are all examples of projects.

Adaptive versus Predictive Projects

Agile or adaptive project methodologies are designed to be creative, with flexible goals that may change throughout the process. As the project team, along with its customer, plan, test, and learn, the requirements and specifications may change, which may alter the final deliverable. Continuous collaboration between the team’s customer and the project team is the key to making fully informed decisions.

Waterfall or predictive project methodologies involve extensive planning, clearly defined goals, and a set timeline. The team works through specific steps in sequence, completing each level before moving on to the next one in the process. It is difficult to adapt to project changes or modifications or correct earlier steps. Given the incremental nature of adaptive planning, the result may differ from the original intent.

When evaluating which of the two approaches to take, consider whether the project has a predictable path or is a new frontier with an uncertain outcome.

Project Management

Successful project managers are skilled communicators with a proven ability to plan, organize, lead, and successfully complete the work of a project team to achieve the project goals, on time and within budget. 

As you might expect, proven project managers are in high demand. Look for candidates with a tolerance for ambiguity who work well under pressure and are comfortable with change and complexity. 

Good project managers can find the vital few out of the trivial many and run the latter of extraction between the big picture and the small but crucial details, have a calm temperament and a can-do, problem-solving attitude. 

Win the Talent War

Lesson 7


Invest in Intangible Assets

 The Business Roundtable has updated its decades-old description of the purpose of a Corporation, from Shareholder interests must be placed above all else, to a fundamental commitment to all stakeholders, customers, employees, suppliers, and local communities.

Generating long-term value for shareholders, we commit to deliver value to all stakeholders, for the future success of our companies, our communities, and our country.

In the constant battle to overcome disruptive change, high potential organizations are rethinking quarterly earnings, increasing their investments in intangible or conceptual assets. Intangible assets are strategic expenditures designed to respond to changing customer requirements. Creating value over many years, such as talent acquisition and development, artificial intelligence, digital transformation, cloud computing, innovation, and creativity team-based structures. 


Experimentation, Prototyping, and Discovery Lesson 8

Cross-functional planning teams work together to experiment, prototype, and discover new innovative customer solutions.

Appoint a Chief Project Management Officer—Create a Project Management Culture

Reporting to the CEO and working with the leadership team, the chief project management officer has the following responsibilities:

  • the analysis of the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
  •  monitoring relevant environmental and competitive trends 
  • facilitator and project management training 
  • assigning facilitators, project managers, and project team members
  •  the identification, prioritization, and recommendations for potential strategic initiatives
  •  management of project-based experimentation, prototyping, discovery, and learning
  • educating teams on application program interface (API) gateways, application development kits, microservices, mobile app development platforms
  •  analysis and documentation of successes and failures
  • · scaling up and implementation of successful strategic initiatives.

Winning the Talent War

 Eagles Do Not Flock; You Must Find Them One at a Time

Crafting and delivering a superior customer experience requires organizations to become employee centric. Organizations have long emphasized the customer value proposition—getting and keeping customers by exceeding their expectations profitably. They know that customers expect you to understand and cater to their unique likes, needs, wants, and preferences with every interaction. They measure consumer attitudes, product and brand preferences, media consumption habits, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Organizations use artificial intelligence to gain personalized insights to deliver seamlessand intuitive customer experiences.

In today’s digital marketplace, where consumers have more control and choices, social media can make or break a brand’s reputation.

Many of the customer branding and marketing concepts apply as well to winning the talent war. Like customers, talent is in demand. Like customers, talent has choices. Like customers, you do not pick talent; they pick you. Like customers, talent shops online for jobs. Customers check ratings; talent checks reputations. Customers check prices; talent checks salaries. Talented candidates are also customers.

On LinkedIn’s “Most In-Demand Employers” and Glassdoor’s “Best Places to Work,” employees and former employees anonymously review companies and their management. An organization’s reputation as an employer is public information. Candidates have access to employment search engines like Google for Jobs, Indeed, and Monster, which aggregate job listings websites, job boards,staffing firms, associations, and company career pages. Linkup only posts jobs offered on company websites, providing applicants with often unadvertised jobs.

The editors of Fast Company’s magazine have sourced the globe to find enterprises at the forefront of their industries. With the breadth of innovation expanding, their 2018 Most Innovative Companies designation will reflect today’s expanding innovation efforts across the business landscape.

It has become a candidates’ marketplace.


Lesson 10

Lesson 10 Digital Transformation


Digital transformation is a categorical imperative for long-term success and survival. The constant stream of new technologies is blurring industry boundaries and redefining markets, overrunning the ability of organizations to keep up. Facing radical change, business models, companies, and entire industries are at risk of digital disruption. Digital transformation demands the leadership’s attention, understanding, and action.

It Cannot Be Delegated. It Must Be Led. 

It may be an uncomfortable subject for many executives but an unavoidable obligation. With an investment of time and some coaching, the terminology, concepts, and principles are understandable. 

The House That Jack Built

As in the construction industry, the presence of an existing structure that needs extensive renovations will increase the complexity of new systems development and can be daunting. 

In many organizations, the older legacy computer systems and programming languages may still be functioning. Like the house that Jack built, legacy systems have been patched, repatched, and modified many times. Some stairways lead nowhere, and doors open into blank walls.

Legacy systems, designed for effectiveness and efficiency, are inflexible and hard to support or expand. Frequently, the original development staff has changed assignments, retired, or left the organization. It is not uncommon that these systems are poorly documented and difficult, if not impossible, to integrate with newer systems development projects.

However, in today’s digital world, organizations must be nimble and able to change direction quickly. They must innovate, experiment, learn, and adapt, creating new products and services that satisfy the customers’ changing needs faster than the competition. 

The forces of digital disruption are:

· smarter devices

· exploding cloud services 

· third-party software vendors 

· microservices and application program interface (API) application development 

· 5G fifth generation wireless networks

It requires organizations to reinvent themselves, think differently, and rethink everything. Digital transformation is about the twenty-first-century digital business organization.Although challenging, investment in digital transformation will reward those who are successful and punish the status quo.


  The potential competitive advantage of the organization’s digital strategy lies in the leadership’s ability to conceptualize how technology can differentiate the organization’s business model, computing infrastructure and application development processes with the ability to innovate, experiment, prototype, and adapt quickly. 


Lesson 10

Questions - Leadership and the Board of Directors


· Does the board of directors have the digital ability for a meaningful conversation with the leadership team on digital transformation? 

· Have we spent the time to discuss and understand the technological changes we are facing? 

o The opportunities and risks of digital disruption and technology-based innovation?

o Are we making digital transformation decisions with outdated information and perspectives?

o Have we aligned our digital transformation strategy team with our development and business management operation teams?

o  Are we at risk of digital disruption from within or outside of our industry? 

o Are we studying the best practices of the digital giants for application to our business?

o Have we identified and prioritized possible digital disruptive impacts to our business model and organization?

o Are we discussing the possible secondary side effects of digital disruption on our organization?

o If we fall behind our competitors’ digital initiatives, will we be able to catch up?

· What is our level of risk tolerance? 

o Are we willing to innovate, prototype, experiment, and accept failures?

o To create new opportunities, are we actively seeking the possibility of willful self-disruption?

· Are we versatile? 

o Can we manage today’s business functions while we actively explore digital ideas to replace those functions?

o Do we have the diversity of talent and perspectives to make the problematic digital transformation choices?

o Do we have a cross-functional team-based collaborative work environment?

·  Is project management one of the organization’s core competencies?

· Do we have the courage and talent to act in the long-term best interests of the organization?

There is no road map or technical sequence to digital transformation. It is a continuing incremental journey, a nonlinear process of phased assimilation, learning, testing, and problem-solving, making new ideas part of our collective knowledge.


Lesson 10

Cloud Computing Services

Cloud computing is an information technology system for enabling ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable resources, networks, servers, storage, applications, and services, which can be provisioned rapidly with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. 

Cloud computing has on-demand self-service, broad network access, and resource pooling is scalable with rapid elasticity or expansion and has measured services.

Cloud computing delivers computing services over a virtual private network or through the internet where the services are available anywhere, anytime, and with any device or browser. The service is elastic and scalable, dynamically allocating additional resources as needed. Moreover, cloud computing services typically use a pay-as-you-go model. The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers, and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware visualization, service-oriented architecture, and utility-based computing has led to the growth of cloud computing.

Cloud computing offers an opportunity to minimize upfront IT Infrastructure costs. As well, third-party clouds enable organizations to focus on getting their applications up and running faster instead of using resources on computer infrastructure. 

The transition from a traditional IT computing infrastructure to a cloud-based IT is an incremental process. Cloud computing is not limited to a multi-tenant public cloud hosted in a vendor’s data center. It is also about single tenant private clouds hosted in the corporate data center or a vendor’s facilities. In many situations, the optimal solution is a hybrid combination of these choices.o where they are.

Cloud Vendor Selection

Some organizations are looking to the cloud as the best long-term approach to digital transformation. Using cloud services allows a focus on customers, shareholders, and employees. However, selecting the right cloud vendor is essential. 

Consider cloud providers that: 

· display a deep commitment to all three layers of the cloud 

o IaaS—infrastructure as a service 

o PaaS—platform as a service 

o SaaS—software as a service

· actively support artificial intelligence and machine learning

· can help convert legacy systems to the cloud

· offer permissioned blockchain technology 

No matter which cloud vendors are selected or which infrastructure deployment model is chosen, it is imperative that the organization keep control over data security. e page and write it here.


Lesson 11 Virtual Organizations

As the enterprise’s digital future becomes increasingly based on cloud services, a new form of organizational communications, a virtual organization, is evolving. In pursuit of an adaptive vision, a virtual organization can distribute work and workers as well as reshape communications and collaboration with customers, suppliers, business partners, departments, and project team members, working together in real time, sharing ideas, satisfying customers, and co-creating new products and services.

Virtual organizations are cloud-based unified communications and collaboration services designed uniquely for each organization, with a single administrator, centralized membership authorization, scalable cloud computing, and storage.

Historically, organizations would acquire and install their own communications infrastructure. The combination of cloud services, voiceover IP, software-definednetworks, and data centers has created a cloud-based software-definedcommunications infrastructure. o where they are.


 Digital transformation is no small feat, so think differently and rethink everything. 

Out-collaborate the competition.


Transforming Communications

Lesson 12 Fifth-Generation Wireless Networks

The fifth generation wireless network will not only address the challenges of cybersecurity and the exponential growth of mobile devices; it will be transformative and potentially disruptive, creating new businesses and new industries, profoundly changing how many organizations work and how we live our lives. 5G is not an evolution of the current 4G wireless networks but instead a revolution in wireless communications technology. 

The marketing term “5G” is used for the fifth-generation wireless communications network that will ensure end-to-end trust, security, and confidence. With global radio frequency spectrum harmonization, international governmental and private sector joint development, the fifth-generation digital network will deliver ultrahigh bandwidth, throughput, and imperceivable latency, the time a message takes to transverse the system. With highly mobile and highly connected density, the global deployment of new 5G services is expected to impact nearly every industry and job sector. 

The first phases of precommercial testing of the new 5G technology standards are underway. Service providers like AT&T and Verizon are experimenting with 5G trials in California, Massachusetts, Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, Texas, and Washington, DC. The UK is planning a small number of large-scale deployment pilots to find the practical and economic challenges of 5G mobile networks. They are expected to start pilot testing in 2018/19 with completion in 2019/20 or 2020/21. Experts don’t anticipate commercial 5G until 2020 or later.

The 5G network and the new radio (NR) cellular air interface deployment are likely to be phased. For example, urban development could provide a platform for testing autonomous vehicles, traffic control, public safety, and security. In rural areas, 5G deployment pilots could test the connectivity of the internet of things services for remote healthcare and agriculture.

One operator plans to implement 5G in the urban areas first, with the rest of the network using the 4G backbone. As a result, the segments of the 5G network that operates on the higher frequencies will not be backward compatible.

The fifth generation communications network will be a sea change, supporting a large number of new industries, new services, and deployment models through a diverse set of devices with different latency and performance requirements. 

Challenges and Opportunities

 For governments, hospitals, universities, businesses, and for service providers, the architecture of communications networks is evolving, but so are the business models, the business cases, the future customer requirements, and the new array of wireless 5G devices that will be needed. 

What will customers be willing to pay for new 5G services versus 4G? With evolving business models, how do service providers calculate a return on investment in upgrading to 5G? Will the FCC lower the barriers to encourage small cell deployment? Will there be federal, state, and local public funding?    


Site Content

Lesson 13 Cybersecurity

e-learning  -  Cybersecurity is about protecting society as a whole, the nation’s increasingly complex and interconnected vital economic infrastructures, government agencies, industries, businesses, hospitals, and individuals who depend on computers, software applications, and networks from attacks by hostile actors.

From cyber terrorism to malware for hire, the frequency, sophistication,and tactics are growing: Network security attacks. Questionable cloud and software vendor security. Broken access, identity, privilege, and session management. Removable media threats, firewalls, and security software misconfigurations. All organizations are at risk of data exfiltration, unauthorized access to critical data. 

Cybersecurity can no longer be a technical support function. Strategy, decisions, priorities, and resources will require new skills, new perspectives, and new leadership.

· How do we protect the organization’s reputation?

· How do we assess our cybersecurity vulnerabilities? 

· How do we assess the risks of cloud computing, software as a service, and email/message service providers? 

o How can we determine the risks of third- and fourth-party providers? 

· Is it possible to secure, end to end, every device, every network connection, and every workload/application?

· Given the highly specialized skills involved, where do we find proven security experience and talent?

Studies show that the cost per data breach is higher with the extensive use of mobile devices, migration of applications and data, third-party involvement, and regulatory compliance failures.

On the other hand, investments in cybersecurity can reduce the cost per data breach.

· governance programs

o audit committees

o certified internal auditors

· managed security services

· threat intelligence platforms

· employee training and education

· extensive use of encryption

· disaster recovery management 

· security information and event management

o AI security analytics 

· a fully functional cybersecurity response team where they are. 


Next to the CEO, one of the most critical leadership positions in the organization may be the chief security officer (CSO). The chief security officer generally has the responsibility for the organization’s governance, risk assessment, risk management, and government compliance programs.

The CSO needs to recruit and lead a team with the skills to defend the organization’s cyberscape vulnerabilities:

ü The unauthorized access, retrieval, modification, or destruction of proprietary data. 

ü Ensuring that all critical data is securely backed up, ready to be restored if needed. 

Given the business continuity and reputation risks associated with a significant breach of data security, the CEO and the board of directors should not underestimate the challenge of building an effective cybersecurityteam. The global demand for certified cybersecurity skills far exceeds the available talent. Begin building the security team by certifying several of the organization’s IT professionals. 

Mapping the cyberscape and the underlying infrastructures can help paint a picture of society’s exposure to cyber attacks. 

Learn More

Software, computer instructions, can be divided into three categories. Systems software includes the operating system and the utilities that support the computer functions. Application software programs support the end users. Software as a Service is a method where applications software is hosted on a cloud vendor’s computer and made available to customers over the public internet or a VPN, a virtual private network.

All hardware needs software to function, but there is no such thing as bug-free, vulnerability-free software. The number of exploitable bugs is directly proportional to the number of lines of code in a given cyberscape infrastructure.

For example, on a laptop, the operating system alone can consist of millions of lines of code. Coding flaws accumulate from one update generation to another, becoming increasingly difficult to find and fix. 

Murphy’s Law of Software Debugging 

· Software doesn’t become more reliable as it is debugged; the bugs get harder to find.

· Bugs appear in one part of a program when another unrelated area is modified.

· Patching a piece of software replaces old bugs with new bugs.

· The amount of time required to debug software is directly proportional to the amount of user input.

· There’s an inverse relationship between the organization’s hierarchy and its understanding of computers systems.

The most straightforward part of software quality assurance testing is proving that the code performs all the functions that the user or users specified and expect. The extremely challenging and sometimes impossible part of QA is the ability to find all the flaws, vulnerabilities, security bugs, and the logic paths not specified in the design and not expected.

Simply put, all software can be hacked.

Learn about Disruptive Change

Lesson 14 Conclusion


We are undergoing disruptive change, with no end in sight. We cannot escape, but we can adapt. It will take a profound commitment from everyone in the organization to learn to adjust to the constantly changing circumstances and conditions.

Becoming an adaptive organization is not about making a few minor adjustments to the way we do things. 

It is about 

  •  Adaptive leadership and followers
  •  Creating a team-based business model designed to experiment, prototype, learn and discover the future
  •  Investing in technology and talent 
  •  Building a culture capable of adjusting to a constantly changing world 
  •  Winning the competitive battle and not becoming obsolete 

The world as we have known it is vanishing. Our cherished organizational traditions are no longer timeless and enduring; they are our heritage, our starting point for rediscovery and for creating the future.

When everything is changing, we need to think differently and rethink everything. It will not be an easy journey. However, by listening, asking, and answering questions, we can draw out ideas and underlying perspectives. Questions lead to answers, which lead to questions, which lead to solutions. If we are unwilling to be adaptive, we are likely to face insurmountable problems. However,with the right perspective, creativity, and determination, we can take the initiative and convert obstacles to opportunities. 


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